Tichodroma - Ornitologický
                časopis / Journal of Ornithology

Tichodroma 22 (2010)

Pôvodné práce
Krátke správy Ostatné

K biológii hniezdenia penice čiernohlavej v antropicky pozmenených biotopoch
On breeding biology of the Blackcap in man-changed habitats


Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta KU v Ružomberku, Hrabovská cesta 1, 03401 Ružomberok,
Slovensko; michal.balaz@ku.sk, mbalazova@gmail.com

The Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) is a common passerine species in all parts of Slovakia and within many habitats
belongs to the frequent and one of the most numerous breeding species. It occurs not only in natural habitats but
commonly inhabits also man made and man changed habitats where usually reaches high densities. Due to high
breeding density of this species in fragmented and artificial habitat we examined several patterns of its breeding
biology in windbreaks and forest fragment of SW Slovakia, to determine potential differences caused by both
habitat and density specificity. Our results were compared with data from literature concerning Blackcap breeding
biology from different habitats. The present data show that there was not important difference in breeding biology
patterns of this species in windbreaks and forest fragment except the higher density of breeding pairs and higher
nests success. Thus most of the aspects of species breeding biology tend to be conservative and they are probably
substantially influenced neither by the habitat composition nor by the breeding density.

Súvisia reprodukčné parametre vrabca domového s veľkosťou alebo kvalitou hniezda?
Are reproductive parameters of the House Sparrows related to nest size or quality?

Radovan VÁCLAV

Ústav zoológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovensko; Radovan.Vaclav@savba.sk

Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain inter- as well as intra-specific variation in nest size. While
quantitative nest parameters are often used as a proxy for nest quality, qualitative measures of nests are seldom
examined. Here I examine whether clutch size, hatching success and fledgling numbers correlate with quantitative
and qualitative nest parameters in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). I found that total nest weight and the
proportion of feathers weight in nest-boxes did not differ between years. On the other hand, the weight proportion
of plastic strings and hay differed inter-annually. Total hay weight and the weight proportion of strings were
repeatable for the same nest-boxes between two years. After controlling for the effect of laying date, clutch size
was found to be related to the total weight of strings – clutch size decreased with increasing springs weight.
Hatching success and fledgling numbers decreased with increasing laying date, but they did not vary with any
nest parameter. This study is in line with the hypothesis stating that nests function as indicators (signals), but it
points to the fact that quantitative nest parameters should be combined with qualitative ones. Also, a higher nest
building activity or a higher weight of some nest components might not necessarily be associated with higher
performance or phenotypic quality.

Havran čierny (Corvus frugilegus) v meste Poprad
The Rook (Corvus frugilegus) in Poprad town

Jaroslav ILAVSKÝ & Peter URBAN

Tajovskeho 2600/8, 058 01 Poprad, Slovensko; ilavsky.j@aminet.sk; Katedra biológie a ekológie, Fakulta prírodných vied UMB, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovensko; urban@fpv.umb.sk

Monitoring of the population of the Rook was conducted within the boundaries of Poprad town during two
breeding seasons in 2009 and 2010. The number of nesting pairs increased by 14.4% in 2010 compared to 2009.
As the most limiting factors are shown management performed by the official town authorities and construction
activities in the colonies surrounding. These factors decreased the numbers of breeding pairs of the main colony
in the park habitat near the railway station (by 37.3%) and the subsequently it caused creation of 11 new colonies
in different parts of the town.

Zmeny v aktivite sýkoriek na kŕmidlách počas zimy
Changes in the activity of tits on bird tables during winter


Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; bigger12@seznam.cz, kristin@savzv.sk

The birds were mist-netted at bird tables and ringed during two winters in regular 5–7 day intervals. Birds activity
in two different types of habitat was analysed (mixed beech-fir forest vs. ecotone of oak-hornbeam forest). We
recorded number of individuals, sex and age in four most abundant insectivorous species (n =711 birds in mixed
forest, 815 in ecotone of broadleaved forest): Parus major (63.3%), Parus caeruleus (22.3%), Parus ater (10.2%)
and Parus palustris (4.2%). In general we trapped more young birds (<1 year) than old ones (> 1 year). In both
habitats we trapped more males than females of P. major and P. ceruleus. Species P. caeruleus and P. ater had
probably longer period for adaptation to new food sources (bird table) in mixed forest. Parus palustris used the
bird tables by the end of February, regardless of habitat.

Ponuka hniezd a ich využitie dravcami a sovami v poľnohospodárskej krajine Podunajskej nížiny
Supply of nests and their use by raptors in an agricultural landscape of Danubian Lowland

Ronald JENEI

Matejkova 10, 841 05 Bratislava, Slovensko; rony.jenei@gmail.com

Falcons and most species of owls do not build their own nests. They breed in large tree cavities, rock crevices,
benches or ledges. When such opportunities are absent, they occupy suitable old nests or usurp new active nests
of other birds. In the study area, located in a cultural steppe of the Danubian Lowland, where large tree or rock
cavities are completely missing, nesting of Eurasian Kestrel, Eurasian Hobby and Long-eared Owl was studied.
They occupy mostly nests of species as Common Buzzard, European Magpie and Hooded Crow. It was found that
26 out of 50 active nests were occupied by falcons and owls (n = 204 nests). Presented research shows obvious
demand for protecting species that build nests suitable for rare raptors.

Nocování ptáků v budkách v lesních biotopech
Roosting birds in nest-boxes in forest habitats


Dukelská 3980, 760 01 Zlín, Česko; karel.zvaral@tiscali.cz

Birds sleeping in nest-boxes were observed in winter months during course of 7 years (2004– 2010). Three
species of passerines were ascertained in boxes with small entrance located in mixed forest northward of Zlín
(Czech Republic). Parus major (PM) occupied 65.5% (59.4% M, 40.6 % F), Sitta europea (SE) 30.7 % and Parus
caeruleus 3.8 %. Average occupancy of boxes was 72.9%, lowest in snowy winter 2006 41.6%, highest in mild
winter 2008 85.8%. Share of ringed birds was in average 33%, lowest in 1st year of control: 15.8%, highest in
2008: 48.6%. Birds older than five years were very rare. Irregular differences in results from six lines of boxes
were found. Percentage of ringed birds on nine feeding places with sunflower seed was 20% (0–44 %), Parus
palustris and Parus montanus were most numerous species. Great part of birds was territorial in snowy winter
and they were able to find some food. PM was controlled next year in the same boxes in 45.8%, SE in 27.7%.
On neighbouring localities (50–150 m) were found 35.7% of PM and 50% of SE, 200–400 m far 15.3% PM and
18.1% SE. Some older birds (1.6% PM and 1.1% SE), were controlled in new distant territories, more than 1000
m from previous winter territory.

Hniezdne zoskupenie vtáctva mozaiky biotopov v Bodvianskej pahorkatine (J Slovensko)
Breeding bird assemblage of mosaic habitats in the Bodvianska pahorkatina hills (S Slovakia)


Gemersko-malohontské múzeum, Nám. M. Tompu 5, 979 01 Rimavská Sobota, Slovensko; galffyova@gmmuzeum.sk

Monitoring of breeding bird assemblage, using CES Scheme methodology, was carried out on the locality Dolná
Lapša near the town Tornaľa in the Bodvianska pahorkatina hills in 2008– 2009. The length of the mist-nets
used was 108 m, most of them were installed in dry scrub. In 2008 altogether 313 individuals of 34 species were
caught during 9 mist-nettings. Of them, 170 were adults and 143 juveniles. In 2009 altogether 295 individuals of
24 species were caught, of them 150 were adults and 145 juveniles. Species Erithacus rubecula, Sylvia atricapilla,
Lanius collurio, Turdus merula and Parus major were dominant in both study seasons. The first juveniles were
ringed during the third visit in both years of the survey. The juveniles represented 45.7% of all caught individuals
in 2008 and 49.2% in 2009, respectively.

Ornitocenózy Keťských rybníkov (Z Slovensko)
Bird assemblages of the Keťské rybníky ponds (W Slovakia)


Ústav krajinnej ekológie SAV, Štefánikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovensko; eva.kalivodova@savba.sk; Ústav zoológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovensko; alzbeta.darolova@savba.sk

During 2000–2010 we found the occurrence of 97 bird species (43 waterbird species). Within water birds, 13
species were nesting, whereas nesting in two species was probable. In riparian vegetation, 21 bird species were
nesting. The characteristic species of this site were Anas sp., Cygnus olor, Fulica atra, Podiceps cristatus and
Aythya ferina. From the total number of birds, 13 species (Nycticorax nycticorax, Egretta alba, Ardea purpurea,
Ixobrychus minutus, Cygnus olor, Aythya nyroca, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco columbarius, Sterna
hirundo, Chlidonias niger, Alcedo atthis, Lanius collurio) are of European importance. Destruction of riparian
tree stands and cane stands in 2009 and at the beginning of 2010 negatively influenced the diversity of water bird
species as well as the species of riparian vegetation.

Vzťahy medzi zoskupeniami vtákov a prostredím v poddolovanej obci Koš na hornej Nitre (Z Slovensko)
Relations between avian assemblages and environmental factors in a coal mining area in the horná Nitra region (W Slovakia)


Vnútorná 3/6, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; tana.solomekova@yahoo.com

In 2008 and 2009 a modified circular plots method was used to study breeding bird assemblages in terrain
depressions created due to coal mining in the area of the village Koš (NW Slovakia). The aim was to distinguish
the most significant predictors of species-environment variation. Altogether, 17 habitat variables were measured
for each plot. Indirect gradient analysis PCA showed that the most important gradient of data variability was
the landscape diversification (20.6% variance of species data), followed by the gradient of continuity of woody
vegetation (11.9%). Direct gradient analysis RDA explained 25% and 76% of variance of species variation and
species-environment variation, respectively. The most significant of these relations are represented by variables:
proportion of area including human constructions, proportion of area including fields, and proportion of area
including construction waste heaps (the latter being associated with Fulica atra, Sylvia communis, Phasianus
colchicus, Saxicola torquata, Anas platyrhynchos, Cuculus canorus, Locustella fluviatilis, Pica pica, Jynx torquilla,
and Erithacus rubecula). The last mentioned variable is interpreted only as indicator of the intensity of complex
human disturbances. Species richness and abundance of birds within three types of plots distinguished by different
frequency of land use reached index in semi-intensive plots. These plots were predominantly represented by
abandoned gardens, orchards and field edges with the near occurrence of wetlands.

Ročný monitoring vodného vtáctva na území rybničnej sústavy Iňačovce-Senné a priľahlej Národnej prírodnej rezervácie Senné rybníky (V Slovensko)
Year-long monitoring of waterfowl species in the fish-pond area Iňačovce-Senné and adjacent National Nature Reserve Senné rybníky (E Slovakia)

Miloš BALLA & Ľubomír HRINKO

ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Latorica, M. R. Štefánika 1755, 075 01 Trebišov, Slovensko; milos.balla@sopsr.sk

Altogether 78 waterfowl species (of them 23 breeding) were found during one year (from March 1, 2008 till
February 28, 2009). Number of breeding species was negatively influenced by absence of water in the nature
reserve and on other hand by absence suitable breeding habitats for limicolous species in neighbouring overflooded
fishpond area Iňačovce-Senné. It was reflected in absence of breeding of Phalacrocorax carbo, Larus
ridibundus and Larus cachinnans in the nature reserve, as well absence of limicols breeding in fishponds. Only
migrant species increased their abundance in comparison to other years. Commented list of all 78 bird species
(occurrence character, phenological data, maximum number of observed individuals) is presented. An observation
of hybrid Aythya ferina × Aythya nyroca? is documented.

Vtáčie zoskupenia územia plánovanej výstavby vodných diel Ipeľ a Ďubákovo (Stredné Slovensko)
Bird assemblages of the area of projected water reservoirs Ipeľ and Ďubákovo (C Slovakia)


Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; kristin@savzv.sk

Altogether 128 bird species (of them 85 breeding, 24 hospites and 19 permigrants) were found in all five plots
of whole study area (total 17 km2, 305–995 m m a.s.l.) in 1997–2009. Of them 36 species belong to Red List of
Slovak birds (one endangered – permigrant Anas acuta, four vulnerable (only Upupa epops as breeding species
and permigrants Anas crecca, Aquila chryasetos and Gallinago gallinago), 26 species in category low risk (LR)
and five species as not evaluated (NE). Number of breeding and other species were registered at all five study plots
and number of breeding pairs/ 100 ha were evaluated at two plots of projected water reservoirs (250 vs. 200 ha).
Crex crex, Columba oenas, Dendrocopos leucotos, Upupa epops, Saxicola rubetra, Oriolus oriolus, Locustella
fluviatilis, Corvus monedula belonged to the most valuable breeding species. The species living at and nearby the
water as Gavia arctica, Anas acuta, Aythya ferina, Charadrius dubius, etc., only rarely visited the area of water
reservoir Málinec. Potential lost of species and habitats in the case of the building of new water reservoirs in
these mountainous traditionally farmed habitats are discussed.

Ornitocenózy vybraného úseku inundačného územia rieky Váh
Birds assemblages of the flood-plain of Váh river segment


Ústav zoológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06, Bratislava, Slovensko; sonanuhlickova@gmail.com

Breeding populations of birds on the floodplain of the river Váh were investigated during 2008–2009. At present the
floodplain is degraded by different human activities (regulation of river flow, habitat fragmentation, exploitation
of wood, recreation), which negatively influenced also orthithocenosis. Several waterfowl species found 40 years
ago in the area (e.g Limosa limosa, Gallinago media, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris, Aythya nyroca)
were not found at the present. However, there were found other bird species of ecotons, bushes and open landscape.
Altogether, 123 bird species were recorded, 46 of them were breeding there.

Zoznam vtákov Slovenska k 7. 4. 2010
A checklist of birds of Slovakia to April 7, 2010


Nová 42, 053 02 Spišský Hrhov, Slovensko; bbokovalik@gmail.com; Botanická záhrada UK, 038 15 Blatnica 315, Slovensko; topercer@rec.uniba.sk; SOS/BirdLife Slovensko, Mlynské nivy 41, 821 09 Bratislava, Slovensko; karaska@vtaky.sk; Jána Švermu 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; danko@gecom.sk; ZOO Bojnice, Zámok a okolie 6, 972 01 Bojnice, Slovensko; vladimir.srank@gmail.com

A checklist of birds of Slovakia provides an updated information on species identity, species richness and status
of all bird species recorded in the territory of contemporary Slovakia between January 1, 1800 and April 7, 2010.
The checklist is based on the decisions of the Rarities Committee of the SOS/BirdLife Slovakia and on the relevant
published sources. It conveys also current knowledge on bird systematics and taxonomy as well as scientific
and Slovak vernacular bird names. Each species is categorized and the checklist itself comprises only species
in categories A, B and C. The total number of species recorded in Slovakia stands at 350, of which 345 are in
category A, 2 in category B and 3 in category C. Species in categories D and E are not included.

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku v roku 2009
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2009


ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; vladimir.slobodnik@sopsr.sk; Katedra ekológie a environmentalistiky, Fakulta prírodných vied UKF, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovensko; roman.slobodnik@ukf.sk

In 2009, 65 members of Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia ringed altogether 49253 birds, of them
4616 were nestlings (9.4%). The most numerous ringed species were Sylvia atricapilla (4212 individuals), Parus
major (3650 ind.), Erithacus rubecula (3241 ind.), Hirundo rustica (3081 ind.), Parus caeruleus (2209 ind.)
and Carduelis spinus (2036 ind.). The ringed birds belonged to 182 species. Lists of ten most frequently ringed
passerines and ten non-passerines are given. The most frequently ringed young are also discussed. Results of 14
individuals re-trapped in Slovakia and ringed abroad as well as 17 individuals ringed in Slovakia and re-trapped
abroad are given.

10. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 10th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Vladimír ŠRANK

Zoologická záhrada Bojnice, 972 01 Bojnice, Slovensko; vladimir.srank@gmail.com, vladimir.srank@zoobojnice.sk

In 2009 the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/Birdlife Slovakia discussed in total 26
announcements from which 24 were accepted. In the category A (new species for Slovakia) were accepted 2
observations: Cygnus atratus, Xema sabini. In the category B (new nidificants for Slovakia ) was accepted 1
observation: Grus grus. In the category C (any occurrence and nesting of the species must by reported) were
accepted 21 observations of the following species: Aix galericulata, Aix sponsa, Ardea modesta, Aythya ferina
x Aythya nyroca, Haematopus ostralegus, Larus michahellis, Motacilla citreola (3 observations), Phylloscopus
bonelli, Phylloscopus collybita abietinus, Phylloscopus proregulus, Somateria mollissima (4 observations),
Stercorarius parasiticus (3 observations), Thalasseus sandvicensis, Threskiornis aethiopicus.

© SOS/BirdLife Slovensko (2009–2010)