Tichodroma 20 (2008)

Pôvodné práce

Krátke správy
Ostatné Abstrakty

K potravnej ekológii výrika lesného (Otus scops) na severnej hranici areálu
On foraging ecology of the Scops Owl (Otus scops) at the northern limit of its area
Gavloviča 1/5, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovakia; karol_sotnar@post.sk; Institute of Forest Ecology SAS, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia; kristin@savzv.sk; M. R. Štefánika 43, 082 21 Veľký Šariš, Slovakia; sarossy@changenet.sk; State Nature Conservany SR, PLA Ponitrie, Samova 1, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia; havran@cabelmax.sk
The species is endangered at northern limit of its area and reasons are not known. In its diet were determined in total 884 food subjects belonging to 29 taxa. Markedly dominant were insects (97.9%), rare were spiders (0.5%), birds (0.8%) and small mammals (0.8%). The bush-cricket Tettigonia viridissima (87.6%) was the most important and preferred prey species. The analysis of the video-records and photographs taken at young’s feeding has not resulted in finding any food preference associated with the young’s age. Preferred foraging strategy was perching and flying onto twigs and leaves of trees and shrubs. Another observed foraging strategy was flying onto flying bush crickets, beetles and butterflies within a layer of 2–6 m above the ground and less frequently flying from a perch onto the ground layer and onto the soil surface. The parents provide their young in the nest mostly with undivided food subjects. In young less than four days in age, the parents tear larger food subjects and divide them in the nest hole. But already the young owls 4–5 days old mostly swallow whole prey items in size of T. viridissima
– in spite of the fact that the prey frequently reaches 20–40% of the body length of the birds. The young owls were fed with a frequency of 1.4–11 feedings/ hour (n = 3 nests/ 11 nights), what is less compared to the generally recognized reports from the Mediterranean (5–18/ hour, n = 5 nests/ 5 nights). 

Výskyt dropa fúzatého (Otis tarda) na Slovensku v rokoch 2000–2008
Occurrence of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) in Slovakia during 2000–2008
Ochrana dravcov na Slovensku, Svätoplukova 1, 841 02 Bratislava, Slovensko; chavko@dravce.sk; SOS/BirdLife Slovensko, Mlynské nivy 41, 821 09 Bratislava, Slovensko; maderic@vtaky.sk
Dramatic decline of the Great Bustard population, whose size was estimated at 2400 individuals at the end of th century, is recorded at the present. Up to 2000, the Great Bustard disappeared from the Žitný ostrov area and other areas located north of the Dunube River. We analysed observations and population size of the species in Slovakia during the period from January 2000 up to September 2008. The observations confirmed that Great Bustards did not nest on most of historical sites in the Western Slovakia and only short-term occurrence of several individuals was recorded there. Only exception was one female, which was occurring more or less regularly in the Lehnice SPA during the period from July 2006 to September 2008. Absence of the Great Bustards was confirmed at previously known sites in the Eastern Slovakia. Nowadays, the most prospective area for breeding of the Great Bustard is located at the cross-border area of Slovakia, Hungary and Austria, southwards from Bratislava, where last breeding of three females was recorded in 2005. This area is regular winter quarters for approximatly 300 individuals of the Great Bustards.

Hniezdne dutiny krakle belasej (Coracias garrulus) na poslednom známom hniezdisku na Slovensku
Breeding hollows of the European Roller (Coracias garrulus) in the last known breeding site in Slovakia
Katedra ekosozológie a fyziotaktiky, Prírodovedecká fakulta UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovensko; bohus@fns.uniba.sk
In the breeding area of the European Roller (Komárno district, Western Slovakia) during the period of 1983–2008, altogether 18 cavities (15 hollows and 3 nest boxes) were occupied and 40 breeding attempts registered. Most hollows/nest boxes (14 of 18; 77.8%) occurred in Populus alba; dominance of breeding attempts under these conditions was even higher(36; 90%). Seven hollows(38.9%)were excavated by Picus sp., 8(44.4%)by Dryocopus martius; and 3 nest boxes (16.7%) were occupied. In case of breedings, hollows of Picus sp. were used 19 times (47.5% of 40 breedings), of D. martius 15 times (37.5%) and nest boxes 6 times (15%). Mean height of entrances was 10.7 ± 3.0 m (n = 18 hollows/nest boxes); respectively 10.9 ± 2.9 m (n = 40 breeding attempts). Preferred entrance orientation was south (5 hollows; 27.8%) and east (3 hollows; 16.7%); From 40 breeding attempts most preferred orientation was southwest (10 breedings; 25%) and south and west (both of 8 breedings; 20%). Rollers preferred to breed on 3 sites with hollow clusters (the first with hollows 1, 2, 3; the second with hollows 4–10 and the third with hollows 14 and 15). On these sites were located 12 (66.7%) from all used hollows/nest boxes; and 28 (70%) of all breeding attempts occurred here. Altogether 96 nest boxes were installed to increase breeding possibilities for the European Roller in the site in 2004–2005.

Vplyv rôzneho prostredia na hniezdnu úspešnosť sýkorky veľkej (Parus major)
Influence of various environment on the breeding success in the Great Tit (Parus major)
Marek VEĽKÝ & Peter KAŇUCH
Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; velky@savzv.sk
During two breeding seasons (2007–2008) we studied the breeding performance (onset of the breeding, clutch size, hatched chicks, fledged chicks), of Great Tits Parus major in three contrasting types of habitats (forest, ecotone, town). Selected somatometric parameters were used (egg size, length of tarsus in six and nine-days-old chicks and in putative mothers). In the forest environment and the ecotone, birds started to lay eggs significantly later than those from the town (about ten days and more). Egg size was smallest in the town and largest in the forest environment. Considering only the first breeding attempts, the tits from the urban habitat laid fewer eggs (7.5 eggs/ nest) than those from the other habitat types. The number of hatched and fledged chicks was likewise lowest in the town (6.2 hatched chicks/nest and 4.3 fledged chicks/nest, respectively). The length of tarsus in six-days-old or nine-day-old chicks did not differ significantly between habitats. The length of tarsus in putative mothers was shortest for the birds breeding in the town (18.9 mm), medium in the ecotone (19.7 mm) and biggest in the forest (20.4 mm). 

Migrácia, zimovanie a hniezdenie myšiarky močiarnej (Asio flammeus) na východnom Slovensku
Migration, wintering and breeding of the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) in Eastern Slovakia
Štefan DANKO
Jána Švermu 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; danko@gecom.sk
All the published as well as hitherto non-published data on occurrence and breeding of the Short-eared Owl in East Slovakia are summarized from years 1862–2007. Across the territory, there occurs yearly autumnal migration with the highest amounts of records (61) reported for November. The East Slovakian Lowland and Košická kotlina Basin, especially, are important wintering areas of the species (80 registered observations). In years with sufficient amounts of common voles, more than 100 birds may over-winter in broader surroundings of the Senné fishponds, alone. In East Slovakia are well-known several breeding localities: primarily that one by the village Blatné Remety, and others in the villages Blatná Polianka and Senné in neighbourhoods of the Senné fishponds. Breeding was found in years 1972–1976, 1978, 1981, 1986 and 1995. In some years it was supposed only. Apart from this localities, the species was also breeding in the East Slovakian Lowland. Finally there is reported knowledge about breeding biology. In the breeding period, the dominant food component was the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis). There were caught 230 Short-eared Owls, for some of them we also report biometric data. There was only obtained one single recovery within the ringing year from NE Belarus. 

Hniezdenie kane popolavej (Circus pygargus) na východnom Slovensku
Breeding of the Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Eastern Slovakia
Štefan DANKO
Jána Švermu 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; danko@gecom.sk
The species was regularly breeding in the East Slovakian Lowland, north of Senné fishponds Reserve (1–7 pairs, 103–110 m a.s.l.)in 1973–1998; however no breeding was observed there in 1999–2008. In addition, in E Slovakia, there was found breeding nearby the villages Vojnatina and Tibava, in 1974 and 1986. One breeding pair was registered by the Latorica River (1974), one by the village Zemplínske Hradište (1986) and by one near Trebišov in (2001, 2002). Supposed was breeding in several localities across the territory of Medzibodrožie, in NW part of the district Trebišov, in N parts of the districts Michalovce and Sobrance. In case of the Košická kotlina Basin, the last breeding was found in 1974. In the first study years, the species bred in wet sedge meadows (19 nests), later almost exclusively in agrocoenoses, especially wheat (35) and rape (13). The shortest distance between the nests was 35 m. In one year, there were 7 breeding pairs, in free cluster in a rape field. Some data about breeding biology are presented. In 1978, one male was melanistic, two of five young individuals were totally black. The dominant food component was Common Vole, at time of its lack, small song birds, primarily Skylarks. There have been ringed 124 young and 27 adults, the females and young were recovered after several years. One 5-year-old male wintered in Chad; another reached an age of 12 years. 

Zimovanie kormoránov veľkých (Phalacrocorax carbo) na Slovensku v rokoch 2005–2008
Wintering of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Slovakia in 2005–2008
Katedra zoologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta UK, Viničná 9, 128 44 Praha 2, Česko; ridzon@vtaky.sk; Slovenský rybársky zväz – Rada Žilina, Andreja Kmeťa 20, 010 55 Žilina, Slovensko; oetv@srzrada.sk; Štátna ochrana prírody SR, Lazovná 10, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovensko; michal.adamec@sopsr.sk
Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia, Slovak angling association and State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic organized common census of Great Cormorants at roosting sites in January 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Altogether, 106 roosting sites were monitored in this period; 30–41 of them were occupied during particular months. Majority of roosting sites were located at trees at bank or islands of water reservoirs and rivers. Exceptionally, roosting sites were located at concrete or rocky embankments, at railway lamps or at transmission towers. There were observed in average 7748 cormorants during the study years. The lowest number was observed in January 2007, 5991–6493 individuals, the highest in January 2006, 7669–9224 ind. Numbers in January 2006 could be partially influenced by lower temperatures. During severe winters were observed probably higher numbers at several rivers in north and east Slovakia. These rivers don not freeze in severe winters and herewith they could be potential refuge for the Cormorants from Northern Europe. 

Dlouhodobé změny početnosti zimujících hus v České republice a na Slovensku v letech 1991–2007
The long-term trends in numbers of wintering geese in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1991–2007
Katedra zoologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta UK Praha, Viničná 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Česko; p.musil@post.cz; Ústav zoológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovensko; alzbeta.darolova@savba.sk; ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Záhorie, Vajanského 17, 901 01 Malacky, Slovensko; rudolf.jurecek@sopsr.sk; Katedra ekologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta UK Praha, Viničná 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Česko; zimnescitanie@centrum.sk
The long-term changes in numbers of wintering goose species (Anser anser, Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons) were analyzed using data from Mid-winter International Waterbird Census in 1991–2007. Numbers of wintering Greylag Goose increased significantly in the Czech Republic as well as in Slovakia. In Slovakia, significant increase in numbers was recorded in Great White-fronted Goose and on the contrary significant decline in Bean Goose. Wintering numbers of these both species fluctuated in the Czech Republic and population trend was classified as uncertain trend. Inter-seasonal fluctuations of weather conditions did not influence significantly numbers of goose species. Nevertheless, in severe winter 2005/06, increase in number of wintering geese (A. fabalis, A. albifrons) was recorded in wintering grounds in Slovakia (esp. Hrušovská zdrž water reservoir). On the contrary, higher numbers of wintering geese were counted in South Moravia (esp. Nové Mlýny water reservoir) in mild winter (e.g. January 2003, 2005, 2007).

Zimovanie a migrácia vodného vtáctva na Hornom Podunajsku: sezónne a poveternostné vzťahy
Wintering and migration of waterfowl species in Upper Danube region: seasonal and weather patterns
Katedra ekologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta UK, Viničná 7, 128 44 Praha 2, Česko; zimnescitanie@centrum.sk
During winter seasons 2003/2004–2006/2007 were recorded maximally 99369 individuals and 88 waterfowl species in the Upper Danube region. To the most abundant were Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya fuligula, Aythya ferina, Fulica atra, Bucephala clangula and Larus ridibundus. Rivers Dunaj and Váh had the most similar species representation; A. platyrhynchos was the most abundant species there. The most distinct species representation of all Slovak rivers was at canals of Žitný ostrov, where was recorded much higher dominance of species Tachybaptus ruficollis, Cygnus olor and Anas strepera as at any other water courses in Slovakia. Changes in abundance of 20 species correlated with mean monthly temperatures. In the case of 12 species (Podiceps nigricollis, C. olor, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Anas penelope, B. clangula, Mergus albellus, Mergus merganser, Rallus aquaticus, Larus canus, Larus argentatus/cachinnans, L. ridibundus) abundance in the Upper Danube region was higher when the temperature was lower. In eight species (Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps grisegena, Ardea cinerea, Netta rufina, Vanellus vanellus, Alcedo atthis, Motacilla alba, Motacilla cinerea), higher abundance was observed in months with higher temperature.


Štruktúra hniezdneho spoločenstva hornej hranice lesa v oblasti Národnej prírodnej rezervácie Osobitá, Západné Tatry
Structure of the breeding bird community at the upper forest line in Osobitá National Nature Reserve, Západné Tatry Mts.
Michal BALÁŽ
Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta KU, Nám. A. Hlinku 56/1, 034 01 Ružomberok, Slovensko; michal.balaz@fedu.ku.sk
The structure of breeding bird community at the upper forest line in Osobitá National Nature Reserve was studied during three breeding seasons 2004–2006 using the mapping method. Altogether 39 bird species were registered in this habitat and 19 species were classified as a breeding species. The density of breeding community ranged from 65.9 to 43.5 breeding pairs (BP)/ 10 ha (mean density was 57.7 BP/ 10 ha). Phylloscopus trochilus was the most abundant species in this habitat, which comprised more than 14% of total breeding community. The most of species belonged to tree-hollow nesters and to canopy and ground feeders. 

Porovnanie ornitocenózy Bábskeho dubovo-hrabového lesa (Z Slovensko) po 40 rokoch
Comparison of the bird assemblage in Bábsky les oak-hornbeam forest (W Slovakia) after 40 years
Ústav krajinnej ekológie SAV, Štefánikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovensko; eva.kalivodova@savba.sk
Birds of the oak-hornbeam site Bábsky les forest were studied for the first time within the International Biological Program (IBP) in detail in 1967–1969. This program was focused especially on the study of secondary production and selected animal groups. After nearly 40 years (in 2005–2008) the ornithological research was repeated by using the similar method as in the period 1967–1969. In both compared periods there were recorded 94 bird species. Altogether 93 of them were found in 1967–1969, while in 2005–2008 only 75 ones. In the first research period 50 breeding species were identified, in the second one 46 species. Comparing the two research periods the character of occurrence in the second stage (2003–2008) was changed in ten species (Buteo buteo, Phasianus colchicus, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Delichon urbica, Troglodytes troglodytes, Phoenicurus ochruros, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Pica pica, Coccothraustes coccothraustes). In 2005–2008 the only new registered breeding bird species was Motacilla alba. Comparison of the breeding bird assemblage of the Bábsky les forest in the time horizon of 40 years shows that in both research periods there were no great differences in breeders. The species Luscinia megarhynchos and Parus major were characteristic and dominant in both research periods. 

Vtáctvo vybraných agrocenóz a vodných nádrží Nitrianskej pahorkatiny (JZ Slovensko): oblasť plánovaná pre výstavbu veterných elektrární
Birds of selected agrocoenoses and water reservoirs in Nitrianska pahorkatina Hills (SW Slovakia): area planed for wind farms
Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; kristin@savzv.sk
Within the environmental impact assessment before building of a wind electric power station (2005–2008), there were studied bird assemblages in three localities within an intensively used agricultural landscape and two control plots, adjacent water reservoirs in SW Slovakia. Altogether 130 bird species (70 of them nidificants) were found in all five localities. Comparable species numbers were found in agrocoenoses of three planed wind farms, the differences were depending mainly on different plot sizes. Altogether 66 species (11 breeding, 43 hospites, 12 permigrants) were found in Báb area, more in Horná Kráľová, in total 72 (16, 40, 16) and maximum in Dvorníky, in total 78 (25, 38, 15). The species Alauda arvensis, Columba palumbus, Phasianus colchicus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris belonged to the most frequent and abundant breeding species in all areas. Altogether 110 species were found in each of both water plots. It is significantly more than in particular agricultural areas. Breeding, occurrence, abundance and ecology of some interesting bird species, e.g. Ixobrychus minutus, Ciconia nigra, Cygnus olor, Netta rufina, Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix, Circus pygargus, Falco subbuteo, Asio flammeus, Merops apiaster, Galerida cristata, Lanius excubitor and as well characteristic species are commented. 

Vtáky štálového osídlenia v okolí Novej Bane (stredné Slovensko)
Birds of landscape with traditional scattered settlement in surroundings of Nová Baňa (central Slovakia)
Ústav krajinnej ekológie SAV, Akademická 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovensko; tana.solomekova@yahoo.com
In suburban habitats of Pohronský Inovec and Tribeč Mts. and in the vicinity of Vtáčnik Mts., 89 bird species were found, including 78 breeding species and 2 probably breeding species. Study area comprises well-preserved historic landscape structure of dispersed settlement. Our aim was to identify species richness of birds and to compare it with similar region of traditional meadow-pasture landscape – Poľana(central Slovakia). Characteristic breeding species were Lullula arborea, Otus scops, Merops apiaster, Coturnix coturnix, Crex crex, Saxicola torquata and Saxicola rubetra. The most dominant species were Emberiza citrinella (mean number of breeding pairs 59/ 100 ha) and Turdus philomelos (33/ 100 ha). Subdominant species were Turdus merula, Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla and Fringilla coelebs. Their occurrences correspond with the overgrowth of forest edges into the meadow and pasture habitats. 

Výskyt vtákov na vodnej nádrži Sĺňava počas zmeny vodného režimu
Occurrence of birds at the water reservoir Sĺňava during the change of water regime
Zavretý kút 42/16, 921 01 Piešťany, Slovensko; kanuscak@gmail.com
Sĺňava is an artificial 430 ha water reservoir located close to Piešťany in western Slovakia. After 39 years(in 2007) the dam was emptied for the second time. I observed the reaction of birds to this change of the water regime in three stages. In first stage before drain off were observed 25 species, in the second stage without water, 83 species were observed and in the third stage after Sĺňava was filled with water 27 species. During the whole period of observation Anas platyrhynchos and Fulica atra ranked among dominant and constant species. In the first phase the number of ducks was relatively low. It increased in second phase. The maximum number was reached when Sĺňava was filled with water. In F. atra the number was very high during the first stage and it started to drop when Sĺňava was emptied. Number increased again when Sĺňava was filled with water. The same occurrence was noticed at other dominant and constant species Cygnus olor. Suitable food conditions of empty Sĺňava were reflected in number of other species mainly in Anas crecca, Ardea cinerea, Larus cachinnans and for enough water areas in Phalacrocorax carbo. Bird community was also enriched by members of Charadriiformes and Falconiformes. Members of the first group were attracted by suitable water area and food. Results were compared with the year 1968 when Sĺňava was emptied for the first time. 

Vtáctvo Košských mokradí vzniknutých banskou činnosťou v Hornonitrianskej kotline (stredné Slovensko)
Birds of Košské mokrade marshlands resulted from deep mining in Hornonitrianska kotlina Basin (central Slovakia)
ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; vladimir.slobodnik@sopsr.sk; Ústav krajinnej ekológie SAV, Akademická 2, 949 01 Nitra, Slovensko; tana.solomekova@yahoo.com; I. Krasku 8/5, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; delfo1@azet.sk
Research was performed on the artificial terrain depressions in the breeding period and in the post-breeding period in years 1987–2007. The artificial forms were developed by deep mining of brown coal in the Nováky coal seam (central Slovakia). The depressions are filled by precipitation and ground water. Since 1985 they represent one of the natural wetlands in the study area. Altogether 185 bird species were found there, 43 of them were breeders and probable breeders. Presence of bird species shows habitat changes in this area. 

Jarný odchyt vtákov v Národnej prírodnej rezervácii Parížske močiare (JZ Slovensko)
Spring mist-netting of birds in Parížske močiare National Nature Reserve (SW Slovakia)
Katedra biológie, Pedagogická fakutla TU, Priemyselná 4, 918 43 Trnava, Slovensko; atrnka@truni.sk; Ústav biologie a chorob volně žijících zvířat, Fakulta veterninární hygieny a ekologie VFU, Palackého 1–3, 612 42 Brno, Česko
The Parížske Močiare National Nature Reserve represents one of the most important ornithological marsh sites in Slovakia. In spite of this, we have only poor knowledge concerning spring migration of birds. Here, we present the results of first standardized mist-netting of birds realized in this locality in the spring of 2008. During three weeks (April 12 – May 3), 774 individuals were caught, representing 27 bird species. Sedge Warbler, Eurasian Reed Warbler, and less Great Reed Warbler, Savi’s Warbler and Bearded Tit were the most abundant species. Six mist-netted individuals of Aquatic Warbler (6 records) are the first documented occurrence of this species in the last ten years in Slovakia. 

Vtáky v zmenených podmienkach prostredia postihnutého vetrovou kalamitou (Vysoké Tatry): vybrané pozorovania
Birds in habitats changed due to disturbances caused by a gale disaster (High Tatra Mts.): selected observations
Matej REPEL & Rudolf KROPIL
Katedra ochrany lesa a poľovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta TU vo Zvolene, Masarykova 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; kropil@vsld.tuzvo.sk; L. Svobodu 26, 058 01 Poprad, Slovensko; repel@vtaky.sk
High Tatra Mts. were attacked by gale disaster in November 19, 2004. This resulted to large clearing of forested areas. Bird assemblages were studied by using mapping method and point method from May 2006 to April 2008 in four different plots according to the timber status there (non-extracted plot, extracted plot, post-fire plot and non-damaged forest plot). Interesting observations of some species are presented in the paper. The Hazel Grouse was regularly observed in larch-spruce forest and two times in non-extracted plot too. Lekking Black Grouse male was observed in May 2008 in extracted stand and in the same day was also seen the female. The Hoopoe was observed in post-fire plot in May 28, 2008 (1050 m a.s.l.). The adult Water Pipit was observed by feeding juvenile individual in the end of May and early June 2008. The Wood Warbler nested in coniferous forest without any broadleaved tree species during 2006 and 2007. The Black Redstart nested regularly in the post-fire plot and was one of two most dominant species there. The singing Brambling male was observed in larch-spruce forest (May 19–26, 2008). Selected observations show birds’ adaptations to changed habitats in particular. 

Vtáctvo močiara pri Béteri (Lučenec, stredné Slovensko) v rokoch 1991–2008
Birds of the marsh at Béter (Lučenec, central Slovakia) in 1991–2008
Tolstého 17, 984 03 Lučenec, Slovensko; dusan72@post.sk; Školská 211, 985 31 Mučín, Slovensko; mm76@post.sk
In 1991–2008 we found in total 165 bird species(34 breeders), from which 92 were water bird species(23 breeders), in the marsh at Béter and the adjacent sewage tank. The dominant breeders were Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Fulica atra, Vanellus vanellus, Acrocephalus palustris, Anas platyrhynchos and Emberiza schoeniclus. Breeding of Podiceps cristatus, Aythya fuligula and Tringa totanus was only confirmed once over the whole study period. During migration, the most abundant were A. platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula, Anas crecca, F. atra, V. vanellus, Philomachus pugnax, Tringa glareola, Gallinago gallinago, Hirundo rustica, Delichon urbica, Anthus pratensis, Motacilla alba, Motacilla flava, Erithacus rubecula, Luscinia megarhynohos, A. schoenobaenus, Sylvia atricapilla, Sturnus vulgaris, Emberiza schoeniclus. More rare were migrants Botaurus stellaris, Anas acuta, Anas strepera, Porzana porzana, Grus grus, Charadrius hiaticula, Tringa erythropus, Tringa stagnatilis, Gallinago media, Limosa limosa, Lymnocryptes minimus, Chlidonias niger, Chlidonias hybridus and Luscinia svecica cyanecula. In one year only, or once were recorded Ardeola ralloides, Egretta garzetta, Platalea leucorodia, Cygnus cygnus, Netta rufina, Mergus albellus, Milvus migrans, Aquila pomarina, Numenius phaeopus, Phalaropus lobatus, Larus melanocephalus, Larus fuscus fuscus, Motacilla flava feldegg, Lanius minor, Sturnus roseus. Interesting were also summer (June) occurrences of A. crecca, A. querquedula, Anas clypeata, Aythya nyroca, Aythya fuligula, Mergus albellus, Calidris ferruginea, Calidris minuta, P. pugnax, Numenius arquata, L. limosa, T. erythropus, Tringa nebularia, T. glareola, Tringa ochropus, G. gallinago and G. media. 

K populačným trendom a hniezdnej biológii strakoša sivého (Lanius excubitor) v širšom okolí Piešťan (Z Slovensko)
On population trends and breeding biology of the Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor) in Piešťany area (W Slovakia)
Schererra 36, 921 01 Piešťany, Slovensko; jan.koci@centrum.sk
In the study area located on the west Slovakia on the river Váh between the towns of Piešťany and Nové Mesto nad Váhom altogether 124 nesting pairs of Great Grey Shrike have been monitored in 2003–2008. In 2003 there were detected 29 nesting pairs/ 100 km2 and in 2004 there were 22 pairs, but only 16 pairs in 2007 (55% decrease). There was slightly increased number in 2008. Densities, arrivals, start of nest building, fledgling numbers in the first and replacement nests, nest distances in the whole study plot as well in agrocoenoses were analyzed. There was registered increasing population trend in agrocoenoses and earlier arrival of birds to breeding sites throughout the successive years, but not earlier start of nest building. A significant lower fledglings number per nest was found in replacement brood (3.5/ nest) than in the first brood (5.8/ nest). Nest predation of some species was regularly registered (Turdus pilaris, less Oriolus oriolus). 

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku v roku 2007
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2007
ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; vladimir.slobodnik@sopsr.sk
In 2007, 55 members of Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia ringed altogether 30934 birds, of them 3427 were nestlings(11.1%). The most numerous ringed species were Sylvia atricapilla (3327 individuals), Erithacus rubecula (3053 ind.), Hirundo rustica (1544 ind.), Parus major (1234 ind.) and Phylloscopus collybita (1233 ind.). The ringed birds belonged to 156 species. Lists of ten most frequently ringed passerines and ten non-passerines are given. The most frequently ringed young are also discussed. Results of 9 species re-trapped in Slovakia and ringed abroad as well as 13 species ringed in Slovakia and re-trapped abroad are given. 

8. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 8th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia
Vladimír ŠRANK
Zoologická záhrada Bojnice, 972 01 Bojnice, Slovensko; vladimir.srank@gmail.com
In 2007 the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia discussed in total 10 announcements; all were accepted. In the category A(new species for Slovakia)were accepted 4 observations: Aix galericulata (2 observations), Alopochen aegyptiacus, Phoenicopterus ruber. In the category B(new nidificants for Slovakia)were accepted 2 observations: Mergus merganser (2 observations). In the category C(any occurrence and nesting of the species must by reported) were accepted 4 observations of the following species: Circus macrourus, Clamator glandarius, Charadrius morinellus, Stercorarius pomarinus. 

Špecifiká a výzvy súčasnej slovenskej ornitológie
Characteristics and challenges of the current Slovak ornithology
Radovan VÁCLAV
Ústav zoológie SAV, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovensko; Radovan.Vaclav@savba.sk
I have evaluated the publishing performance of Slovak ornithologists and authors using birds as their study subjects. I have collected bibliographic information for the period of years 1993–2008 using Zoological Record® and Web of Science® databases for the following three countries: Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Sweden. While the publishing productivity of Slovak authors turns out to be comparable to that of colleagues from the other two countries, my inspection has revealed a disproportionally small number of Slovak authors involved in publishing articles on birds. Apart from the distinct quantitative aspects of publishing performance, the publishing account reflects a high contribution of amateur ornithologists in Slovakia: 1) relatively more articles published in non-impacted local journals, 2) articles published in ornithological journals with average impact factors, 3) high proportion of descriptive articles on general subjects, and 4) high use of rarity species as study subjects. I propose that Slovak ornithology would benefit from inciting more young students to become professional ornithologists, establishing regular, long-term monitoring programs, higher consideration of ecology and behaviour in research questions and improving and strengthening communication between amateur and professional ornithologists – perhaps also with the assistance of the journal Tichodroma. Finally, I suggest that Slovak ornithologists should take advantage of Slovakia’s geographical, agricultural and socio-economic heterogeneity to study principles of avian distribution and population trends, as well as their expertise in parasitology. 

Andrej Kmeť – ornitologické čriepky
Andrej Kmeť – ornithological fragments
Katedra biológie a ekológie, Fakulta prírodných vied UMB, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovensko; urban@fpv.umb.sk
In February 2008, we remembered 100th anniversary when Andrej Kmeť (1841–1908) died. One of the first Slovak scientists which focused on various topics and subjects was modest and hard-working roman-catholic priest. As an amateur he studied mainly archaeology, botany, geology, mineralogy, palaeontology and ethnography. In this paper I summarise his ornithological activities.

© SOS/BirdLife Slovensko (2009–2013)