Tichodroma 28 (2016)

Pôvodné práce

Krátke správy

Abstrakty a plné texty

Hniezdna početnosť a biotopové vzťahy holuba plúžika (Columba oenas) v západnej časti Cerovej vrchoviny (J Slovensko)
Breeding abundance and habitat associations of the Stock Dove (Columba oenas) in the western part of the Cerová vrchovina Mts. (S Slovakia)

Marian MOJŽIŠ & Benjamín JARČUŠKA

Školská 211, 985 31 Mučín, Slovensko; e-mail: m.mojzis76@gmail.com
Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Ľ. Štúra 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko

Abstract. To assess Stock Dove breeding abundance and habitat associations, we mapped calling males in the
western part of the Cerová vrchovina Mts. (61 km2) during 2016. Oak, Hornbeam and Black Locust dominated
in the studied forests (36.6 km2) while Beech stands aged >60 yrs covered only 3.7% of the forests. Calling males
were recorded in 50–125 yrs-old forest stands. When considering calling male records as surrogates of breeding
pairs, breeding density was 1.88 pairs/100 ha of the total forest area. The local density varied between 0.05 and
2.17 pairs/ha. The local density of calling males was positively associated with stand age and the proportion of
Beech trees in the forest stand. These predictors accounted for 50.0% of variance in Stock Dove density with the
proportion of Beech trees explaining ca. twice as much variance as did stand age. A breeding population for the
study area in 2016 was estimated to be 69 pairs.

Key words: breeding survey, habitat selection, Stock Dove, breeding density, forest age, Slovakia

Elektronická príloha:

Hniezdenie holuba hrivnáka (Columba palumbus) v Trnave
Breeding of the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus) in Trnava city

Alexandra NAVRÁTILOVÁ & Alfréd TRNKA

Katedra biológie, Trnavská univerzita, Priemyselná 4, 918 43 Trnava; e-mail: alfred.trnka@truni.sk

The breeding occurrence and breeding biology of the Wood Pigeon were studied in Trnava city in 2016.
Altogether, 419 nests were found, 196 of which were occupied. The nests were located predominantly on deciduous
trees (85.4%), most often on maples, lindens and Black Locusts. They were positioned at heights of 2–17 m (x̅
= 6.98 m, SD = ± 2,65 m), mainly on lateral branches. The total number of breeding pairs of Wood Pigeons in
Trnava city was estimated at 400–600 pairs.

Key words: urbanization, Wood Pigeon, habitat, breeding biology, Slovakia

Zimovanie murárika červenokrídleho (Tichodroma muraria) na Devínskej Kobyle (JZ Slovensko) v rokoch 2012 – 2016
Wintering of the Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) in the Devínska Kobyla hills (SW Slovakia), 2012–2016

Radovan VÁCLAV

Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovakia; e-mail: radovan.vaclav@savba.sk

Abstract. Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) is a rare breeder, but also a less explored wintering bird for Slovakia, particularly for winter quarters located further from its breeding grounds. Here I report on the wintering Wallcreeper survey for a lowland site, an abandoned quarry, in the Devínska Kobyla hills (SW Slovakia) during five non-breeding seasons (2011/2012–2015/2016). Wallcreeper was detected at the site each year, though in one season (2014/2015) only during early October. Data on Wallcreeper presence suggests that the species generally winters at the site from late October until early April. Single individuals occupied the quarry over the winter season, but a simultaneous presence of two Wallcreepers was occasionally observed. Of six Wallcreepers detected at the site, five were adult males and one was adult female. Analysis of the photographic material suggests that one of the males wintered at the site during three consecutive years.

Key words: Wallcreeper, winter ecology, sex, age, photographic analysis

Ďatle ako konzumenti imág lykožrúta smrekového (Ips typographus) počas zrelostného žeru: prípadová štúdia
Woodpeckers as consumers of adult spruce bark beetles (Ips typographus) during maturation feeding: a case study


Výskum ekologických procesov, Cesta armády 235/7, 962 63 Pliešovce, Slovensko; spavlik235@gmail.com

Abstract. At least 10 woodpeckers of 4 species excavated bark beetle imagoes during their maturation feeding within a 0.25 ha forest spot with 6 Norway spruces trees (Picea abies) infested by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) near Zvolen (central Slovakia) during one day of continuous observations (12 September 2015, from 6:00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. of CEST): 2 males, 3 females and 1 young of Dendrocopos major, 1 female of D. medius, 1 female of D. leucotos, and 1 male and 1 female of Dryocopus martius. Up to 4–6 woodpeckers excavate simultaneously within the infested spot. Woodpeckers excavating I. typographus spent on one tree continuously 4–84 min (averagely 28 min). From the total time spent by individual woodpeckers by excavation (951 "woodpecker-minutes"), 17% of excavating activity was associated with D. major males, 55% with D. major females, 8% with D. major young, 2% with D. medius  female, 9% with D. leucotos female, 7% with D. martius male and 2% with D. martius female woodpeckers. At least one excavating woodpecker was observed within the infested spot in 57% of the total time of observations. Excavation of bark beetles by woodpeckers peaked between 5:00 and 6:00 p.m. Woodpeckers excavated bark beetles on a trunk singly in 34 cases. In 27 cases, 2–3 woodpeckers excavated simultaneously on the same trunk, but only in 9 cases an aggressive encounter was observed resulting in driving away of one woodpecker from a trunk. D. major consumed approximately 9 bark beetle imagoes per one minute of excavation, averagely 1,122 imagoes per day. A mean predation rate for bark beetle imagoes was estimated to be 47% (95% confidence interval 32–67%). The number of bark beetles predated by D. major would be able to attack potentially on average further 15–67 spruces in the next year depending on their physiological state.

Key words: woodpeckers, Ips typographus, predation, spruce forests

Zimujúce vodné vtáky na Váhu v regióne Liptova (severné Slovensko)
Wintering waterbirds on Váh River in the region of Liptov (N Slovakia)

Michal BALÁŽ

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta Katolíckej univerzity, Hrabovská cesta 1, 034 01 Ružomberok,
Slovensko; e-mail: michal.balaz@ku.sk

Abstract. Altogether 23 species of waterbirds were registered during the middle of January in 2009–2016 on Váh
River in Liptov region (northern Slovakia). Neither total number of species nor number of birds correlated with
the temperature (free or frozen water surface of a large water dam Liptovská Mara). However, the proportion
of diving birds registered on the river was positively associated with the ice extent in the water dam. The most
numerous bird species was Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) representing more than 80% of all wintering waterbirds
of region and registered on all parts of the river and during all seasons. Constant and frequent species were also
Water Dipper (Cinclus cinclus), Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) and Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis).

Key words: montane river, wintering birds, monitoring, Carpathians

Owl breeding survey in the lower part of the Ipeľ River basin (S Slovakia), 2010–2016
Sovy hniezdiace v južnej časti Ipeľskej kotliny (J Slovensko) v rokoch 2010 – 2016

Radovan VÁCLAV

Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 06 Bratislava, Slovakia; e-mail: radovan.vaclav@savba.sk

Abstract. European farmland habitats face dramatic changes in biodiversity and birds serve as good indicators of such changes. Here I present results of a seven-year survey for a particular group of farmland birds, owls, for a region in southern Slovakia during 2010–2016. The ecological abundance of Scops-Owl, a focal owl species, was 3–5 breeding territories/40 km of the Ipeľ River. Approximately half (6/11) of Scops-Owl territories was located in old rural parks within villages, with the remaining territories being located in riverine woodland. A high availability of large trees and extensive grassland areas with low pesticide use appear to provide Scops-Owl with the most suitable breeding habitats within the study area. With an estimated median breeding population density of 4 (range: 1–7) pairs per ca. 80 km2, Long-eared Owl breeding density in the study area belongs among Slovakia’s highest. Most Long-eared Owl breeding territories were located in villages in various woodland structures, such as old manor and cemetery parks, street tree lines and windbreaks, with the remaining territories being located in similar structures, mainly hedgerows, but just outside the villages. Little Owl breeding distribution was limited to a single breeding core area, consisting of four breeding territories. The median breeding population density of Little Owl was 2 (range: 0–4) pairs per ca. 80 km2, with the median ecological breeding density being 1 (range: 0–4) pair per ca. 4 km2. Four Tawny Owl breeding territories were recorded, and two of these territories overlapped with those of Scops-Owl. Single breeding territories of Barn Owl and Eagle Owl were recorded. The current distribution of Barn Owl and mainly Little Owl emphasizes the importance of ruderal and non-productive farmland habitats and indicates important changes in trophic interactions in the region’s farmland ecosystem.

Key words: Otus scops, Athene noctua, Asio otus, abundance, breeding habitat, farmland

Vtáctvo dubového pasienkového lesa Gavurky pri Dobrej Nive (stredné Slovensko) v rokoch 2003 – 2013
Birds of Oak pasture woodland Gavurky near Dobrá Niva (C Slovakia) in 2003–2013


Vtáky Slovenska & Birds Slovakia, s.r.o, P. O. BOX 174, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovensko; e-mail: vtakyslovenska@gmail.com

Abstract. Bird assemblage in the Gavurky Protected Area was studied in 2003–2013 (80 days in the field)
and compared with published results from 1992–1994. Altogether 97 bird species was found in the study area
(133.5 ha), of them 52 breeding species in 2003–2013. In 1992–1994 there were registered similar number of
species (96) but of them more breeding species (64). Furthermore, there were trapped and ringed altogether 27
bird species (174 specimens) during 21 trapping sessions in 2003–2013, and the most abundant there were Parus
major, Phylloscopus collybita, Poecile palustris, and rare were there e.g. Merops apiaster, Jynx torquilla, Regulus
ignicapilla, Ficedula hypoleuca. Altogether 23 species of European importance revealed high regional importance
of this area. Sustainability of the habitat, its perspective and conservation management were discussed. Supporting
of natural regeneration of the parent stand seems to be the most urgent measure.

Key words: bird diversity, conservation management, Oak woodland

Prvý dokumentovaný výskyt kolibiarika dlhochvostého (Phylloscopus schwarzi) na Slovensku
First record of the Radde’s Warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi) in Slovakia


Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Námestie osloboditeľov 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; e-mail: matejrepel@gmail.com

Abstract. The Radde’s Warbler (Phylloscopus schwarzi) was recorded for the first time in Slovakia. One specimen
of the species was mist-netted at the Ostrovik meadow in the SPA Senianske rybniky close to Senne village, SE
Slovakia, on October 1, 2016.

Key words: Radde’s Warbler, Phylloscopus schwarzi, first record, Slovakia

Strnádka malá (Emberiza pusilla): nový druh avifauny Slovenska
Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla): a new species in the avifauna of Slovakia


Rúbanisko III / 20, 98403 Lučenec, Slovensko; e-mail: chocatabras@gmail.com

Abstract. The Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla) was recorded for the first time in Slovakia. One specimen of
the species was mist-netted at the Béter marsh near the town of Lučenec, S Slovakia, on September 29, 2016.
Occurences of the specimen in other European countries are discussed.

Key words: Little Bunting, Emberiza pusilla, first record, Slovakia

Úspešné hniezdenie vodnára potočného (Cinclus cinclus) pri frekventovanom turistickom chodníku v Malej Fatre (S Slovensko)
Successful breeding of Water Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) near a frequented tourist trail in Malá Fatra Mts. (N Slovakia)


Haľamovská 470/2, 02721 Žaškov, Slovensko; e-mail: tomas.flajs@gmail.com
Správa NP Malá Fatra, Hrnčiarska 197, 013 03 Varín, Slovensko

Abstract. This contribution describes a successful breeding of the Water Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) in nest located near frequently used tourist trail in Northern Slovakia. Nest was situated only 134 cm from the trail which was used by 446 tourists per day in average. Although more than 18,000 people passed by the nest during the breeding, at least four nestlings fledged from the nest.

Key words: tourism, human disturbance, habituation, Pyro Sensor Eco-Counter

Elektronická príloha:

Prvý priamo zaznamenaný prípad predácie kolónií vodného vtáctva norkom americkým (Neovision vison) na Slovensku
First recorded case of direct predation of waterbird colonies by American Mink (Neovision vison) in Slovakia

Štefan BENKO, Andrej CHUDÝ & Jozef RIDZOŇ

Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Zelinárska 4, 821 08 Bratislava, Slovensko;
e-mail: benko@vtaky.sk, chudy@vtaky.sk, ridzon@vtaky.sk

Abstract. The article describes first recorded occurrence of American Mink at Danube river in Slovakia in 2010 and following changes in numbers of breeding Common Terns. Their breeding numbers reached the highest value at 377 pairs in Dunajské luhy SPA in 2011. Then numbers decreased there to 185 in 2015 (by 51%), when the first case of predation was directly documented by camera traps in colony of 60 tern pairs.

Key words: Common Tern, American Mink, predation, colonies, Danube River

Vplyv výstavby lyžiarskych stredísk a zimnej rekreácie na vtáky: rešerš
Effects of building ski resorts and winter recreation on birds: a review


Katedra aplikovanej zoológie a manažmentu zveri, Lesnícka fakulta, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene, T. G. Masaryka 20,
960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; email: martin.kornan@tuzvo.sk
Centrum pre ekologické štúdie, Ústredie 14, 013 62 Veľké Rovné, Slovensko; e-mail: martin.kornan@gmail.com

Abstract. Ski tourism negatively effects wildlife in mountain ecosystems. The Slovak society has nowadays faced
a rapid increase in number of running ski resorts over whole country. Rigorously designed ornithological studies
focused on effects of existing ski resorts on avifauna are lacking, consequently I tried to review existing knowledge
on this topic from foreign countries published primarily in database Web of Science. I focused on effects construction
of resorts and winter recreation on mortality, abundance, species richness, diversity, stress, home ranging behaviour,
time budget and foraging ecology of birds. Electric and lift cable lines cause mortality of birds especially galliforms
and can effect fluctuation patterns and viability of affected populations. Construction of ski slopes negatively
effects species richness, diversity and abundance of original bird assemblage of forests and meadows. Edges of
ski slopes with forests may cause negative edge effect causing decrease of species richness and diversity of bird
assemblages. Winter ski tourism and flushing disturbance evoke high levels of stress hormones in tetraonids that
may cause serious physiological symptoms. Presence of urban areas and new food sources provided by visitors
for birds (alpine accentor, choughes) in alpine areas may seriously change original home range size, seasonal
home range dynamics, time budget activities, habitat selection and foraging ecology of affected populations. Effect
of ski industry on birds in Central European countries was studied very unsuffieciently up to now. For most our
regions, no sufficient information of the effects on bird assemblages, behaviour and physiology are not available
to identify the most effected bird populations. Majority of authors from foreign countries (mainly western Europe)
concludes that ski resort areas represent suboptimal habitats for most wild birds and development of new ski
resorts should be kept outside valuable natural areas.

Key words: behaviour, birds, cable line mortality, diversity, environmental effects, species richness, stress

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku za roky 2014 a 2015
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2014 and 2015

Michal JENČO, Matej REPEL & Miroslav DEMKO

Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Krúžkovacia centrála, Námestie osloboditeľov 1,
071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; e-mail: kruzkysk@gmail.com

Abstract. In 2014, 58 ringers ringed altogether 52,830, of them 4486 were nestlings. That number was 7.69% lower compare to 2013. The ringed birds belonged to 151 species. The most numerous ringed species were Great Tit (Parus major, 7528 individuals), Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica, 5531 ind.), Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla, 4599 ind.), European robin (Erithacus rubecula, 3211 ind.), Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus, 2755 ind.). The colour ringed schemes in Slovakia are given. Alltogether 615 abroad recoveries were registered, out of them were 166 individuals ringed abroad and re-trapped in Slovakia, 438 idividuals ringed in Slovakia re-trapped abroad. In 2015, 56 ringers ringed altogether 61,952, of them 5120 were nestlings, That number was 17.35% higher compare to 2014. The ringed birds belonged to 156 species. The most numerous ringed species were Great Tit (10,517 individuals), Barn Swallow (7112 ind.), Blackcap (5367 ind.), Blue Tit (4424 ind.), European robin (3095 ind.). The colour ringed schemes in Slovakia are given. Alltogether 529 abroad recoveries were registered, out of them were 106 individuals ringed abroad and re-trapped in Slovakia, 421 idividuals ringed in Slovakia re-trapped abroad.

Key words: bird ringing, recoveries, colour ringing schemes

16. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 16th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Richard KVETKO & FK SOS/BirdLife Slovensko

SNP 14, 903 01 Senec, Slovensko; e-mail: richard.kvetko@centrum.sk

Abstract. In 2015, the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia reviewed 64
records, of which 57 were accepted in the category A, 1 in category C, one record in category D, three records
in category E and one breeding record. Two records were rejected. First record of Pied Wheatear (Oenanthe
pleschanka), two records of Black-headed Bunting (Emberiza melanocephala), second breeding record of Egyptian
Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca), one record of Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus), two records of Brant Goose
(Branta bernicla), one record of Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), one record of Arctic Tern (Sterna
paradisea), one record of White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) and two records of Yellow-browed Warbler
(Phylloscopus inornatus) were the highlights in 2014 and 2015. Rarities Committee accepted also some other
valuable observations from the years 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2015. For example, in 2014 and
2015, four records of Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), five records of Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis),
one record of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca), eight records of Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus), six
records of Red Knot (Calidris canutus), 14 records of European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), two records of
Black-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava feldegg), two records of Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola), one record
of Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), in 2011 one record of Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus
inornatus). Furthermore, there were one record of Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in 2004, in 2009 one
record of Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), six records of Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) in
2014 and 2015, one record of Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), one record of Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius
parasiticus), one sighting of Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) in 2014, five records of Rosy Starling
(Pastor roseus) in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2014.

Key words: birds, rarities committee, rarities report, Slovakia

Stollmann A.: Pocta Ottovi Kadlecovi

Rác P. (ed.): Ornitologické pozorovania

Koleček J.: „Každý pták se počítá“ – konference České společnosti ornitologické

Kronika – Tono Krištín: 60?!

© SOS/BirdLife Slovensko (2009–2013)