Tichodroma 27 (2015)
Pôvodné práce

Krátka správa

Abstrakty a plné texty


Post-breeding aggressive territorial behaviour in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus): territory or mate defence?
Pohniezdne agresívne teritoriálne správanie u vrabca poľného (Passer montanus): hájenie teritória alebo partnera?


Daniłowskiego 1/33, 01 833 Warsaw, Poland;
Faculty of Biology and Environmental Studies UKSW, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw, Poland;
Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84506 Bratislava, Slovakia; E-mail: radovan.vaclav@savba.sk

Abstract. The genetic interests of males and females usually differ. Whenever female fitness depends on an access to limited resources such as male parental care, competitive interactions among females are expected to evolve. There are numerous studies reporting female-female aggression during the breeding season, but this subject has not been examined for the post-breeding period. Here we examine female-female aggression in the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus occurring during the autumn courtship period. We show that aggressive behaviour between nest owners and intruders is common and often fierce during the post-breeding courtship period. Importantly, female more frequently performs this behaviour than male nest owners and it is sex- but not age-specific (i.e. birds interfere with individuals of the same sex, but regardless of their age). This study, focusing on the post-breeding period, corroborates the idea that female territorial aggression can be involved in mate monopolization rather than simply serving as a territory defence strategy. Moreover, aggressive territorial behaviour of nest owners towards intruders can also serve as a signal of mate quality during the pair-formation period. We propose that examining female territorial behaviours during the post-breeding period can provide additional insights into the causes of diversity in avian mating systems.

Key words: antagonistic behaviour, sexual conflict, post-breeding period, mating systems

Vplyv troch krajinných prvkov na lokalizáciu volajúcich samcov chrapkáča poľného (Crex crex) v kopaničiarskej krajine (Zázrivá, SZ Slovensko)
Effect of three landscape elements on localization of calling Corncrake (Crex crex) males in dispersed settlement landscape (Zázrivá, NW Slovakia)


Správa NP Malá Fatra, Hrnčiarska ul. 197, Varín 013 03, Slovakia; e-mail: tomas.flajs@gmail.com

Abstract. The Corncrake colonizes usually mountain grasslands used for hay-cutting. The goal of this work is to characterize effect of three landscape elements – constructions, forest, and roads – on localization of calling corncrake males. From 2011 to 2015 I studied the distance of calling males (n = 192) from nearest forest edge, building and nearest road. An ANOVA model containing type of landscape element and year in interaction explained 21.1% of the variability of observed males’distances from the three landscape elements. The results showed that calling males were statistically significantly located closer to forests or roads but further from constructions. The year of observation did not affect the results. Thus as the largest risk for the occurrence of species we may consider the development of new constructions in an agricultural landscape. For that reason, it can be important to consider carefully every construction in Special Protection Areas designed for Corncrake as the fragmentation of favourable areas and habitats can cause irreversible damage to local population.

Key words: Corncrake, buildings, forest, road, nature conservation

Odhad veľkosti hniezdnej populácie vodnára potočného (Cinclus cinclus) vo vybranej časti severného Slovenska
An estimate of the breeding population size of the White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) in the part of northern Slovakia

Michal BALÁŽ, Lucia HRČKOVÁ & Tomáš FLAJS

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta Katolíckej univerzity, Hrabovská cesta 1, 034 01, Ružomberok; michal.balaz@ku.sk
Katedra zoológie, Prírodovedecká fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava; hrckova@fns.uniba.sk
Správa NP Malá Fatra, Hrnčiarska 197, 013 03 Varín; tomas.flajs@gmail.com

Abstract. Density of the breeding population of the White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) was study in creeks and rivers of the four size categories (“small creek” to “big river”) of the Liptov and Orava regions (northern Slovakia). Altogether 17 creeks and rivers (113 km) with the nest boxes were monitored. There was found no differences in the breeding density between the streams of different sizes. Average breeding density of the 83 monitored pairs reached 0.98 breeding pairs per one km (0.8 – 1.1). The mean density of the particular size of the stream was used for estimation of the number (upper interval) of the breeding birds at the non-monitored creeks or rivers of that size. The lower interval was estimate according to results of studies on Dipper breeding density at the several Central European creeks and rivers without nest boxes. Altogether 140 – 251 pairs should breeding in the study area of ca 1150 km2.

Key words: breeding density, territory size, water birds, Carpathians

Poznámky k populácii dážďovníka obyčajného (Apus apus) v aglomerácii mesta Košice (východné Slovensko)
Notes on population of a common swift (Apus apus) in Košice urban agglomeration (E Slovakia)

Simona MATISOVÁ, Beata NAGY, Ľubomír KORYTÁR & Marcel UHRIN

Katedra zoológie, Ústav biologických a ekologických vied, UPJŠ, Šrobárova 2, 041 54 Košice, Slovensko; email: marcel.uhrin@gmail.com, sima.matisova@gmail.com
č. d. 91, 044 73 Nižný Lánec, Slovensko
Katedra životného prostredia, veterinárskej legislatívy a ekonomiky, Univerzita veterinárskeho lekárstva a farmácie v Košiciach, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovensko

Abstract. The study provides the results of Apus apus surveillance in the city of Košice in 2011 and 2013. Altogether, based on 369 observation records collected during two years in different areas of the city, we estimated the species population at nearly 4300 individuals (density 27–81 individuals / 10 hectares). The highest abundace of the species was recorded in urban areas “Sever” and “Ťahanovce”. The dominant breeding habitats were identified non-insulated concrete buildings with various holes and fissures and with the eight-storey buildings as most frequently used. As nest cavities, the most often attic vents and joints between panels of prefabricated buildings were recorded. Obtained data provide an overview on the state of the species in Košice within the 2011 and 2013 years and they can also help in Apus apus protecting against threats caused by an extensive building renovations which currently taking place in Košice.

Key words: abundance, distribution, nesting sites, nesting habitats

Distribution of nests and breeding density of birds of prey, Black Stork and Common Raven in the forests of Litovelské Pomoraví (Czech Republic)
Distribuce hnízd a hnízdní hustota dravců, čápa černého a krkavce velkého v lesích Litovelského Pomoraví (Česká republika)


Nenakonice 500, CZ-783 75 Věrovany, Czech Republic; e-mail: karel.poprach@tyto.cz
Katedra rozvojových studií Přírodovědecké fakulty UP, Žižkovo náměstí 5, 771 40 Olomouc; Czech Republic; e-mail: machar@pdfnw.upol.cz

Abstract. The study is focused on breeding populations of birds of prey (Pernis apivorus, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, Falco subbuteo), Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) and Common Raven (Corvus corax) in forest complexes of Litovelské Pomoraví (93,186 km2, percentage of forest cover 57.9 %). In the period 2000–2005, altogether 213 large tree nests of studied species were found. The English Oak (Quercus robur), European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Common Alder (Alnus glutinosa) were used most frequently for nesting in the floodplain forest; the European Larch (Larix decidua), Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) and Common Alder in the Doubrava and Třesín area. Majority (88.7%, n = 213) of the nests were found in forest stands at the age of 81–140 years. 24 % of the nests were situated less than 100 m from the forest edge and 73 % of the nests less than 500 m from the forest edge. In total, 249 cases of nesting attempts were recorded, 227 of them (91.2%) were related to the Common Buzzard, 5 to the Northern Goshawk, 2 to the European Honey Buzzard, 6 to the Black Stork, 7 to the Common Raven, 1 to the Eurasian Sparrowhawk and 1 to the Eurasian Hobby. The mean distance between two occupied nests of the Common Buzzard was 747 m (min. 91 m, median 623 m, max. 2225 m). In the Common Buzzard, breeding density calculated for the whole study area (D) ranged between 26.8 and 52.6 pairs/100 km2, density calculated for the total area of forests (Dles) ranged between 46.3 and 90.7 pairs/100 km2. In the Northern Goshawk, the densities were D = 1.1–2.1 pairs/100 km2 and Dles = 1.9–3.7 pairs/100 km2, in the European Honey Buzzard they were D = 2.1 pairs/100 km2 and Dles = 3.7 pairs/100 km2, in the Black Stork D = 2.1 pairs/100 km2 and Dles = 3.7 pairs/100 km2, in the Common Raven D = 1.1–2.1 pairs/100 km2 and Dles = 1.9–3.7 pairs/100 km2. Nest occupancy ranged between 16.0 and 30.8%. Of the total number of 227 breeding attempts of the Common Buzzard, 86.3% were successful. The mean number of fledged juveniles in the Common Buzzard was 1.74 juveniles per successful breeding attempt and 1.44 juveniles per initiated breeding attempt. In the Common Buzzard, the distance to the nearest occupied nest, calculated for different numbers of fledglings per breeding pair, did not differ significantly, neither in individual years nor for all years pooled.

Key words: birds, population abundance, breeding success, Common Buzzard, SPA

Elektronická príloha:

Avifauna východnej časti Levočských vrchov (V Slovensko)
Birds of eastern part of Levočské vrchy Mts (E Slovakia)

Miroslav FULÍN & Michal REVICKÝ

Puškinova 15, 083 01 Sabinov, Slovensko; e-mail: miro.fulin@gmail.com
082 76 Torysa 261, Slovensko; e-mail: michalrevicky77@gmail.com

Abstract. Avifauna of Levočské vrchy Mts, Special Protection Area (SPA) since 2013, is understudied due to military training area located in the mountains in the second half of 20th century. This paper reports data about bird species observed in the eastern part of the range during last 50 years. Altogether 133 bird species were found in the study area in 1964–2015. Of them 88.4% were breeding species (13 extinct as breeding species), 3.9% wintering species, 3.9% transmigrant species and 5.4 % occurred erratically. One of the most important SPA in Slovakia for criterion species as Golden Eagle, Black Stork and Corncrake. Intensive logging due to windbreaks and bark beetle outbreaks has substantially changed habitats for forest bird species (Capercaillie, Black Stork) in the central part of the mountains. Abandonment of management on meadows in upper zone of mountains caused apparent population decline of Black Grouse.

Key words: Levočské vrchy Mts., birds, faunistics, military training area, Natura 2000

Hniezdna ornitocenóza prírodného xerotermného dubového lesa v NPR Boky (stredné Slovensko)
Breeding bird assemblage of natural xerothermic oak forest in the Boky National Nature Reserve (C Slovakia)

Peter LEŠO

Katedra ochrany lesa a poľovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta TU vo Zvolene, Masarykova 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; e-mail: leso@tuzvo.sk

Abstract. Bird assemblage of the Boky National Nature Reserve, preserving the xerothermic oak nature forest with forest-steppe sites, was studied using a strip census method during breeding period in 2015. The aim of the study was to describe qualitative and quantitative structure of the bird assemblage and to compare the bird assemblages’ structure during the past 50 years. Altogether, 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the reserve. Total bird density reached 75.5 pairs/10 ha. Six species were found to be dominant (>5% of the total density): Fringilla coelebs, Ficedula albicollis, Erithacus rubecula, Sturnus vulgaris, Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major, representing 57% of the total density. Shannon index of species diversity reached 4.61 bits. Anthus trivialis, Emberiza citrinella, Dendrocopos medius, Sylvia curruca, Jynx torquilla, Lanius collurio, Carduelis carduelis, Upupa epops and Picus viridis can be considered as characteristic species of the xerothermic oak forest-steppe habitats. Five species recorded in the past (Bubo bubo, Caprimulgus europaeus, Monticola saxatilis, Certhia brachydactyla and Phoenicurus phoenicurus) were not confirmed during the recent census. On the contrary, two species (Falco peregrinus and Strix uralensis) are new breeders in the reserve. Based on our data and data from the same area taken during 1966–1999, the reserve represents valuable natural habitat preserving stable and diverse bird assemblages.

Key words: bird assemblage, mapping, distribution, xerothermic oak forest

Štruktúra vodného vtáctva na vodnej nádrži Veľké Kozmálovce (Z Slovensko) po 15 rokoch
Structure of waterbirds on the water reservoir Veľké Kozmálovce (W Slovakia) after 15 years


Veľké Kozmálovce 310, 935 21 Veľké Kozmálovce, Slovensko; e-mail: jurobillmadar@gmail.com

Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess structure of birds on water reservoir Veľké Kozmálovce. I examined species diversity, abundance and frequency in 2012–2013 and compared them with earlier study from 1998–2001. During two study periods 125 species (29 breeding species, 37 hospites and 30 permigrants; 38 waterbirds, only 4 breeding waterbirds) were found at water reservoir. Altogether 102 bird species were found in 2012–2013 (35 breeding, 24 hospites and 43 permigrant), of them 43 species were waterbirds and only 4 species were breeding waterbirds; 96 bird species were found in 1998–2001 (29 breeding, 37 hospites and 30 permigrant), of them 38 species were waterbirds and only 4 species were breeding waterbirds. In 2012–2013 I observed 19 birds listed in Red list of birds in Slovakia there – 7 endangered (Anas crecca, Aquila heliaca, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta, Gallinago gallinago, Tringa totanus a Chlidonias niger), 5 vulnerable and 7 near treated. Seventy three species were registered in both studies (2 breeding waterbirds), 23 species were registered only in the first study and 29 bird species were registered only during this study. The most frequent species were Anas platyrhynchos (97.8%), Ardea cinerea (81.1%) and Motacilla alba (64.4%). The most dominant species were A. platyrhynchos, Phalacrocorax carbo and Mergus merganser. Two rare species were registred, Himantopus himantopus and Recurvirostra avosetta, too. This water reservoir has regional importance for wintering species like A. platyrhynchos, P. carbo and M. merganser.

Key words: bird assemblages, waterfowl, waders, structure, diversity, species richness

Reintrodukcia plamienky driemavej (Tyto alba) na SZ Slovensku: prípadová štúdia
Reintroduction of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the NW Slovakia: a case study

Tomáš Flajs & Ján Obuch

Haľamovská 470/2, 027 21 Žaškov, e-mail: tomas.flajs@gmail.com
Botanická záhrada Univerzity Komenského, 038 15 Blatnica, e-mail: obuch@rec.uniba.sk

Abstract: The article describes unsuccessful attempts of reintroduction of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in a farmyard in NW Slovakia between 2013 and 2015. Altogether 16 individuals of Barn Owl were released in three attempts. In 2015 one pair started to breed, but nestlings died. By comparison of the content of undigested pieces of food from the period of intense feeding by chickens and lab mice to the undigested pieces of food collected after they left farmyard, adaptation to local food sources was found.

Key words: barn owl, Tyto alba, reintroduction, diet

Označovanie bociana bieleho (Ciconia ciconia) na Slovensku – stav vedenia záznamov a evidencia spätných hlásení
Ringing of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in Slovakia – state of records’ administration and index of recovery records

Miroslav FULÍN

Puškinova 15, 083 01 Sabinov, Slovensko; e-mail: miro.fulin@gmail.com

Abstract. I present information about ringing and recovery records for White Stork from Slovakia. The situation with data registration at Ringing Centre in Slovakia from 2002 to 2014 is not satisfactory. This state is caused by a non-uniform method of data processing and archiving and also by irresponsibility of ringers to report data on time and in required form. Thus, the index of recovery records is not complete. I have obtained up to twice higher number of recovery records for Slovakian White Storks from ringing centres in neighbouring countries than in the Slovak Ringing Centre. Every year number of recovery data is increasing which is directly related with colour-ringing and specialization of field observers to read the data of such ringed storks.

Key words: White Stork, ringing, banding, recovery records, ringing centre

Sládek J.: Zabúdame na Františka J. Turčeka?!

Dudich A. G. L.: Intelekt na rozhraní vekov a svetov – František J. Turček

Kocian Ľ.: František Jozef Turček, CSc. – ochranca prírody

15. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 15th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Richard KVETKO & FK SOS BirdLife Slovensko

SNP 14, 903 01 Senec, Slovensko; e-mail: richard.kvetko@centrum.sk

Abstract. In 2014, the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia reviewed 69 records, of which 56 were accepted in the category A, 1 in category C, 4 records in category D and 3 breeding records. Two records were rejected.  First record of Paddyfield Warbler (Acrocephalus agricola), first record of Oriental Turtle Dove (Streptopelia orientalis), first breeding record of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca), one record of Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), one record of Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) and one record of Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) were the most interesting records in 2014. Rarities Committee accepted also some other valuable observations from the years 1998, 2001, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014. For example, in 2013 and 2014, four records of Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), two records of Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis), four sightings of Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), one record of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca), twenty records of Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus), one record of five individuals of Red Knot (Calidris canutus), eight records of European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), one record of Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), one record of Black-headed Wagtail (Motacilla flava feldegg), two records of Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola), one record of Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), one record of “tristis type” of Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita), one breeding record of Common Merganser (Mergus merganser). Furthermore, there were two records of Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in 2004 and 2008, eleven records of Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) in 2011 and 2014, two sightings of Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) in 1998 and 2014, four records of Rosy Starling (Pastor roseus) in 2001, 2012 and 2014.

Key words: birds, rarities committee, rarities report, Slovakia

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