Tichodroma 26 (2014):

Pôvodné práce
Krátke správy

Abstrakty a plné texty

Are there habitat dependent differences in male quality in Eurasian reed warblers? The role of male song nad feeding investments
Existujú habitatové rozdiely v kvalite samcov trsteniarika bahenného? Úloha samčieho spevu a investície do kŕmenia


Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84506 Bratislava, Slovakia; alzbeta.darolova@savba.sk

Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, University of Veterinary Medicine, Savoyenstr. 1a, A - 1160 Vienna, Austria;


Abstract. Individuals of a species are usually adapted to a specific environment in terms of behavior, morphology or physiology. The question is whether fine tuned adaptations in a species may even exist within a habitat, but slightly different habitat features. Here we examine whether a marsh habitat consisting of patches of two different vegetation types (reed and reed mace) may result in male quality differences occupying them. We have already shown that in Eurasian reed warblers egg investment of females, but not their quality or condition differs between individuals breeding in the two vegetation types. In this study we want to know, whether these habitat dependent investment strategies might be a consequence of differential allocation due to variation in male quality. To determine male quality we used i) song in terms of song speed, song complexity and redundancy of male Eurasian reed warblers singing in reed and reed mace and ii) paternal investment in terms of feeding contribution of males breeding in reed or reed mace. Our results revealed differences in feeding rates between broods raised in reed and reed mace territories but neither male song nor male feeding contribution varies between reed and reed mace territories. Thus different female egg investment is due to habitat rather than male quality. Habitat parameters influencing nest protection and offspring survival remain to explain differences in maternal egg investment.


Key words: Eurasian reed warbler, behavior, reed, reed mace, paternal investment, male attractiveness

Biológia hniezdenia vodnára potočného (Cinclus cinclus) počas dvoch teplotne odlišných hniezdnych sezón
Breeding biology of the White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) in two breeding seasons differing in temperature

Lucia HRČKOVÁ, Michal BALÁŽ a Ľudovít KOCIAN

Katedra zoológie, Prírodovedecká fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava; e-mail: lulahrckova@gmail.com, kocian@fns.uniba.sk.
Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta Katolíckej univerzity, Hrabovská cesta 1, 034 01, Ružomberok; e-mail: michal.balaz@ku.sk.

Abstract. Breeding biology of the White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) was studied in the northern part of the Central Slovakia in the two years differing by average daily air temperature during the breeding seasons and mainly during the egg laying periods. In 2014, the breeding season was characterized by considerably higher temperature than breeding season of 2013. Dippers started to lay eggs earlier in 2014 and the first egg was laid 28 days earlier (February, 19th) than in previous season (March, 17th). Mean clutch size was slightly higher in 2014 (5.3 eggs per nest) than in 2013 (4.8 eggs per nest) but the significant interseasonal differences were found only between the clutch sizes of the second broods (4.1 and 5.3 eggs per nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Moreover, the frequency of the second broods was significantly higher in warmer season. We found no differences in nest success between studied years (79.29 % and 78.03 % in 2013 and 2014, respectively).

Key words: White-throated Dipper, laying date, clutch size, nest success, air temperature

Hnízdní úspěšnost výra velkého (Bubo bubo) v různém hnízdním prostředí
Breeding success of the Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) in different nesting habitats


Žižkov II/1279, Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic; e-mail: pygargus@eznam.cz

Abstract. Breeding population of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) was regularly monitored in the region Vysočina in the Czech Republic during 1989–2013. Breeding success of the species in relation to nesting environment and altitude was assessed in 22 sites for four habitat types. Active stone quarry (n = 5), rocky cliffs in river canyons (n = 5), large rock outcrops in forests (n = 5), and small rock outcrops and rocky forest floor in forest stands (n = 7). Habitat type had statistically significant effect on number of nests with hatched chicks, on number of successful nests, and on number of fledglings (P ≤ 0.007, R2 = 0.39–0.52). There was significant correlation between altitude and above mentioned characteristics (P ≤ 0.031, R2 = 0.17–0.23). The highest nest success was in active stone quarries, 70% (n = 77), and highest mean number of fledglings per nest, 1.24. Breeding success at rocks in river canyons was 57% (n = 84) with mean of 1.03 fledglings per nest. Breeding success at large rock outcrops in forests, and small rock outcrops and rocky forest floor in forest stands was 50% (n = 86) and 32% (n = 69), respectively, with mean number of 0.97 and 0.55 fledglings per nest, respectively.

Key words: Euroasian Eagle-owl, breeding environment, breeding success, habitat

Elektronická príloha:

Porovnanie štruktúry hniezdnych ornitocenóz medzi extenzívne spásanými a zarastajúcimi horskými pasienkami v Národnom parku Muránska planina
Comparison of breeding bird assemblage structure between extensive and successional mountain pastures in the Muránska planina National Park


Martin Korňan


Centrum pre ekologické štúdie, Ústredie 14, 013 62 Veľké Rovné, Slovensko; e-mail: martin.kornan@gmail.com.

Katedra ochrany lesa a poľovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene, T.G. Masaryka 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko


Abstract. Species structure, species richness, diversity, population densities and total density of breeding bird assemblages of extensive pastures and successional pastures were compared in the Muránska planina National Park during the breeding season in 2014. Birds were censused using the point count method with fixed radius of 50 or 100 m depending on environmental conditions. In total, 19 point counts were conducted in extensive pastures three times during June and July, while 10 point counts were carried out in successional pastures. Species richness and diversity was not significantly different when tested by Monte Carlo rarefaction approach; however, in larger standardized samples extensive pasture had significantly higher species richness and diversity then successional pastures. The total assemblage density of extensive pastures (23.71 ind./10 ha considering territorial records, 41.93 ind./10 ha considering all records) was significantly lower than the total density of successional pastures (50.29 ind./10 ha considering territorial records, 74.80 ind./10 ha considering all records) when compared by two-sample t-test. Important grassland species such as corn crake Crex crex and Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis were detected only in extensive pastures. Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella showed higher population densities in successional pastures compared to extensive pastures (5.09 ind./10 ha versus 3.51 ind./10 ha). Canonical correspondence analysis indicated contrasting species structure between extensive and successional pastures in response to the gradient of tree and shrub cover underling differences between these two types of bird assemblages.


Key words: bird community, species diversity, richness, population density, habitat associations, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA)

Vtáctvo mokradných biotopov na lokalite Kórea pri Zvolene v rôznych obdobiach

Birds of wetland habitats in site Kórea near Zvolen (C Slovakia) in different periods

Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Ľ. Štúra 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko; e-mail: kristin@savzv.sk


Abstract. The wetlands are important refuges of biodiversity. Study site Kórea, i.e. a wetland and surrounding habitats (7.3 ha), originated at agricultural land by construction of railway shunting yard 60 years ago. The structure of bird assemblages was evaluated there with regard to different seasons, periods and habitats. Altogether 104 bird species, of them 57 breeding, 26 hospites and 21 permigrants were registered during 61 visits in 2012–2014. Of them we found 32 water species, 15 of them bred there. The most dominant water species were there Anas platyrhynchos (34.8%), Fulica atra (21.4%), Tachybaptus ruficollis (8.9%), Gallinula chloropus (6.8%). These species were the most frequent, too (each > 53%). The most occupied habitat (from main six) was habitat forest and hedges (52% of bird species; 41% of site area) and litoral vegetation (21% species; 23% of area). The confirmed breeding of the teal Anas crecca was one of the most important faunistic records. Comparison of breeding assemblages between years 1995 and 2014 has shown similar bird species number (56, resp. 53), but increased abundance (from 146 on 177 pairs/ 7.3 ha). The species Perdix perdix, Coturnix coturnix and Troglodytes troglodytes were not breeding there in 2014, and no new species bred there. Increased abundance of breeding bird species can be explained by increased plot of litoral vegetation (Typha, Salix, Phragmites) by 13%, forest and hedges by 12% and their height as well as by increased plot of open water and transforming the  grasslands on tall-sedge growths.

Key words: waterfowl, wetlands, mapping, distribution, seasonality

Prvý dokumentovaný výskyt trsteniarika roľného (Acrocephalus agricola) na Slovensku
First record of the Paddyfield Warbler (Acrocephalus agricola) in Slovakia


Tolstého 17, 98403 Lučenec, Slovensko; e-mail: chocatabras@gmail.com.

Abstract. The Paddyfield Warbler (Acrocephalus agricola) was recorded for the first time in Slovakia. One specimen of the species was mist-netted at the Béter marsh near the town of Lučenec, S Slovakia, on August 18, 2014. This observation was accepted by the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia. Occurrences of the Paddyfield Warbler in other European countries are discussed.

Key words: Paddyfield Warbler, Acrocephalus agricola, first record, Slovakia

K miere návratnosti a vernosti hniezdnemu teritóriu u trsteniarika škriekavého (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) na juhozápadnom Slovensku
On the return rate and breeding territory fidelity in the Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) in south-west Slovakia


Alfréd Trnka & Michal Trnka


Katedra biológie, Trnavská univerzita, Priemyselná 4, 91843 Trnava; e-mail: atrnka@truni.sk

Abstract. Natal and breeding philopatry are important components of life-history strategies in birds which may markedly influence their fitness and demographic evolution. In spite of this fact, information on return rate and territory fidelity are poorly known in many bird species. Here we present data on the philopatry of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) in south-west Slovakia. In total, 220 recoveries of 317 adult birds (174 females and 143 males) and 744 nestlings ringed at ponds near the town of Štúrovo were used for the analyses. We found that great reed warblers displayed relatively low philopatry with males and females showing the same proportions (28% and 24%, respectively). In contrast, breeding territory fidelity was higher for females than for males (32% and 13%, respectively). Results are compared with the findings from other studies.   

Key words: philopatry, breeding site fidelity, dispersal distances, Great Reed Warbler

Hniezda orieška byčajného (Troglodytes troglodytes) v hniezdach vodnára potočného (Cinclus cinclus)
Nests of the Eurasian Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) in nests of the White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus)

Michal BALÁŽ, Lucia HRČKOVÁ & Tomáš FLAJS

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Pedagogická fakulta Katolíckej univerzity, Hrabovská cesta 1, 034 01 Ružomberok; e-mail: michal.balaz@ku.sk
Katedra zoológie, Prírodovedecká fakulta Univerzity Komenského, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava
Správa NP Malá Fatra, Hrnčiarska ul. 197, 013 03 Varín

Abstract. Three nests of Eurasian Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) were found located in nests of White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus). The nests of Dipper were situated in nest boxes under bridges over three rivers in the northern part of Central Slovakia. All wren nests were without clutches during whole periods of observation. Each of them was probably one of the several nests build by male and not accepted by female for breeding in the first or second brood of particular year.


Key words: unusual nest location, Eurasian Wren, White-throated Dipper

Hlucháň hôrny (Tetrao urogallus) vo vybraných lokalitách Stolických vrchov (Západné Karpaty)
The capercaille (Tetrao urogallus) in selected localities in the Stolické vrchy Mts. (West

Jaroslav FIGÚR & Peter URBAN

Katedra biológie a ekológie, Fakulta prírodných vied UMB, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovensko; e-mail: jarofigur@gmail.com, urbanlutra@gmail.com.

Abstract. Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is an indicator of well-structured boreal and montane forest habitats, characterised by an intermediate canopy cover and abundant ground vegetation. It is seriously suffering from fragmentation of forests and habitat loss. We studied occurrence of this species on seven localities in the Stolica Mts. (E Slovakia) in 2011–2013 (October–November 2011 and 2012, April–May 2012, and March–April 2013).We recorded presence of capercaillie in six of seven sites. Predation is probably the most important factor of threats there at present.

Key words: Tetrao urogallus, Special Protection Area Muránska planina – Stolica, occurrence

K aktuálnym otázkam výskumu vtáctva na Slovensku
On priority questions of ornithological research in Slovakia

Benjamín JARČUŠKA1, Anton KRIŠTÍN1, 2, Ján TOPERCER3, Lucia DEUTSCHOVÁ4, Miroslav FULÍN5, Monika CHRENKOVÁ6, Dušan KARASKA7, Dušan KERESTÚR8, Martin KORŇAN9, 10, Peter KRIŠOVSKÝ5, Jozef LENGYEL11, Peter LEŠO9, Peter MIKULA12, Marian MOJŽIŠ13, Vladimír NEMČEK4, Ján OBUCH3, Samuel PAČENOVSKÝ14, Peter PUCHALA15, Matej REPEL14, Miroslav SANIGA1, Martin SÁROSSY16, Jozef SLÁDEK17, Roman SLOBODNÍK4, Vladimír SLOBODNÍK18, Andrej STOLLMANN19, Ivan ŠIPKOVSKÝ20, Karol ŠOTNÁR4 & Peter URBAN21

1 Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Ľ. Štúra 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko, e-mail: benjamin.jarcuska@gmail.com, 2 kristin@savzv.sk;
3 Botanická záhrada Univerzity Komenského, 038 15 Blatnica 315, Slovensko;
4 Ochrana dravcov na Slovensku, Kuklovská 5, 841 04 Bratislava, Slovensko;
5 Východoslovenské múzeum, Hviezdoslavova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovensko;
6 Daphne - Inštitút aplikovanej ekológie, Podunajská 24, 821 06 Bratislava, Slovensko;
7 Štátna ochrana prírody SR, Správa CHKO Horná Orava, Bernolákova 408, 02901 Námestovo;
8 Tolstého 17, 98403 Lučenec, Slovensko;
9 Katedra ochrany lesa a poľovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta, Technická univerzita vo Zvolene, T. G. Masaryka 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko
10 Centrum pre ekologické štúdie, Ústredie 14, 013 62 Veľké Rovné, Slovensko;
11 Štátna ochrana prírody SR, CHKO Dunajské luhy, Korzo Bélu Bartóka 789/3, 929 01 Dunajská Streda, Slovensko;
12 Katedra zoologie, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Viničná 7, 128 43 Praha 2, Česká republika;
13 Školská 211, 985 31 Mučín, Slovensko;
14 Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Nám. Osloboditeľov 1,  071 01 Michalovce;
15 Štátna ochrana prírody SR, CHKO Malé Karpaty, Štúrova 115, 900 01 Modra, Slovensko;
16 M. R. Štefánika 43, 082 21 Veľký Šariš, Slovensko;
17 Kimovská 26, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovensko;
18 Štátna ochrana prírody SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko;
19 Krivá 3, 947 01 Hurbanovo, Slovensko;
20 Trakovice 58, 919 33 Trakovice, Slovensko;
21 Fakulta prírodných vied Univerzity Mateja Bela, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovensko.

Abstract. Aimed to identify priority questions of ornithological research in Slovakia, 103 persons directly or indirectly involved in ornithological research and/or bird protection in the country were addressed by a simple questionary. The present paper brings synthesis of c. 130 answers gathered from 30 participants. The priority questions proposed for future research in Slovakia were grouped/divided into the following areas: bird census and monitoring; habitat and diet requirements; impacts of human activities on birds and economic damage caused by birds; factors affecting bird populations changes; data, publishing, education and working groups activities; and bird conservation and management. The most of proposed research questions were focused mainly on issues associated with protection of birds and their habitats, namely study of bird population trends and factors associated with the trends, species habitat requirements, and impact of human activities on birds. We anticipate that addressing these questions may help to improve conversation between professional and amateur ornithologists as there will be a need to collect a large amount of data.

Key words: ornithology, research priorities, habitats, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity conservation

Prehľad krúžkovania vtákov na Slovensku v roku 2013
Bird-ringing results in Slovakia in 2013


Slovenská ornitologická spoločnosť/BirdLife Slovensko, Krúžkovacia centrála, Námestie osloboditeľov 1, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovensko; e-mail: kruzkysk@gmail.com
Ochrana dravcov na Slovensku, Kuklovská 5, 841 04 Bratislava 4, Slovensko; e-mail: slobodnik@dravce.sk
ŠOP SR, Správa CHKO Ponitrie, Dlhá 3, 971 01 Prievidza, Slovensko; e-mail: vladimir.slobodnik@sopsr.sk

Abstract. In 2013, 57 ringers ringed altogether 56,546 birds, of them 3,593 were nestlings. That number was 16.6% higher and 11.3% lower than the mean of the previous five years for total number of birds and nestlings, respectively. The ringed birds belonged to 172 species. The most numerous ringed species were Great Tit (Parus major, 8,567 individuals), Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica, 7,654 ind.), Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla, 4.036 ind.), Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus, 3,938 ind.), Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus, 2,918 ind.). The colour ringed schemes in Slovakia are given. Alltogether 304 abroad recoveries were registered, out of them were 75 individuals ringed abroad and re-trapped in Slovakia, 229 idividuals ringed in Slovakia and re-trapped abroad. That numbers were 42 %, 21.7 % and 28 % lower than the mean of the previous five years.

Key words: bird ringing, recoveries, colour ringing schemes

14. správa Faunistickej komisie Slovenskej ornitologickej spoločnosti/BirdLife Slovensko
The 14th report of the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia

Richard Kvetko & FK SOS BirdLife Slovensko

SNP 14, 903 01 Senec, Slovensko; richard.kvetko@centrum.sk

Abstract. In 2013, the Rarities Committee of the Slovak Ornithological Society/BirdLife Slovakia reviewed 83 records, of which 64 were accepted in the category A, 6 in category C, 6 records in category D and 3 breeding records. Two records were rejected. Two records of Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), one record of Brant Goose (Branta bernicla), one record of Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) and one record of Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) were the highlights of the year 2013. Rarities Committee accepted also some other noteworthy records from the years 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013. E.g. in 2013, one sighting of Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus), three records of Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), one record of Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus), one record of Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), seven records of Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis), three records of Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis), one record of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiaca), two records of seven individuals Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata), first record of Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), four records of three individuals Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus), one record of Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), seven records of Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), one record of Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), two records of Red Knot (Calidris canutus), one record of Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus), nineteen individuals of European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), two records of Greater Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), two records of Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola), one record of Rosy Starling (Pastor roseus), one record of three individuals Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), first breeding record of Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata), one breeding record of Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) and one breeding record of Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus). Furthermore, there were three records of Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, seven records of Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012, one sighting of Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus) in 2011,  one record of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) in 2008, three records of Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in 2009, 2012 and 2013.

Key words: birds, rarities committee, rarities report, Slovakia

Korňan M.: Ornitologická udalosť roka - 26. Medzinárodný ornitologický kongres v Tokyu

Ornitologické pozorovania

Murin B.: Recenzia: Trnka A, Grim T. (eds.) 2014: Ornitologická príručka

Kronika – Miroslav Saniga

Kronika – RNDr. Jozef Palášthy, CSc. (* 1. 3. 1929 – † 30. 12. 2014)

Oznámenie: Marcin Antczak Award

© SOS/BirdLife Slovensko (2009–2013)